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SOLAR/1038-79/50 



/ 



Solar Project 
Description 




SADDLE HILL TRUST 

SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENT 

Medway, Massachusetts 

August 24,1979 




U.S. Department of Energy 

National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process 
disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. 



Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of 
Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161. 



Price: Paper Copy S5.25 
Microfiche S3.00 



Solar/ 1038-79/50 

Distribution Category UC-5° 



SOLAR PROJECT DESCRIPTION 

EOR 

SADDLE HILL TRUST 

SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCES - MEDWAY, MASSACHUSETTS 



Department of Housing ana Urban Development 

Under Contract Number 

H-2J72 

David Moore 
Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program Manager 

By 

The Boeing Company 
David Beers, Proaram Manaaer 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

I. FOREWORD I 

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 

III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION 4 

IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 7 

A. General Overview 7 

B. Collector Subsystem 9 

C. Storage Subsystem 21 

D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem 26 

E. Auxiliary Subsystem 30 

F. Modes of Operation 32 

V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION 35 

A. The National Solar Data Network 35 

B. On-Site Instrumentation 38 

VI. COST DATA 41 

VII. APPENDIX 42 

A. Glossary 42 

B. Legend for Solar System Schematics 47 



n 



LIST OF FIGURES 

F jfjure Title Page 

IV-A- 1 General Overview 7 

IV-B-I Collector Subsystem 9 

IV-B-2 Solar Collector II 

IV-B-3 Collector-to-Storage 16 

I V-C- I Storage Subsystem 21 

IV-C-2 Storage-to-Space 23 

IV-D-I Energy-to-Load Subsystem 26 

IV-E-I Auxiliary Subsystem 30 

IV-F- 1 Controls Diagram 32 

V-A- I The National Solar Data Network 36 

V-A-2 Data Flow Path for the National Solar Data Network 37 

V-B- 1 Sensor and Control Diaaram 40 



m 



I iATIOI JAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS 

I '"ports prepared for the fJational Solar Data Program are numbered under a 
'.per \\\< format, f or example, this report for the Saddle Hill Solar demonstration 
proje* t. Saddle hill project site is designated as SOLAR/ 1038-79/50. The elements 
of this designation are explained in the following illustration: 



I 'r< pared for the 

i lot lonal Solor -+. 

I )<\\n Pronram 



)ornonstration bite -^- 
I lumber 



SOLAR/ 1038-79/50 



Report Type 
-^~ Designation 



-► Year 



demonstration Site Number: Each project has its own discrete number - 1000 
through 1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites. 

Report Tyue Designation: 

i riis number identifies the type of report, e.g., 



Monthly Performance Reports — designated by the numbers 01 

(for January) through 12 (for December); 

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations — designated by 

the number I A; 

Solar Project Descriptions — designated by the number 50; 

Solar Project Cost Reports — designated by the number 60. 



Those reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical 
Information Center, P.O. Box e>2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. 



TV 



I. FOREWORD 

The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the 
Department of Energy (DOE) as mandated by the Solar Heating and Cooling 
Demonstration Act of 1974. The Department of Housing & Urban Development is 
responsible to DOE for the Solar Residential Demonstration Program. The overall 
goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a 
viable solar industry and to achieve a substantial reduction in fossil fuel use 
through widespread use of solar heating and cooling applications. An analysis and 
synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in 
site-specific reports and summary documents as products of the National Solar 
Data Program. These reports will cover topics such as: 

o Solar Project Description. 

o Operational Experience. 

o System Performance Evaluation. 

o Monthly Performance Reports. 

Information contained herein for this Solar Project Description report has been 
extracted from data collected during site visits and from reference documents such 
as the Droject proposal, designer specif ications, grantee submittals, manufacturer 
literature, photographs, specific "as-built" <1ota ana otner project documentation 
available. The remaining reports in thr series will utilize the Solar Project 
Description for supporting reference. 



II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

The Saddle Hill solar demonstration project is located in Medway, Massachusetts. 
The solar system used on this project is designed to provide building heating as well 
as domestic water heating, for lot 36. Lots 73 and 76 are designed to provide solar 
energy for preheating domestic water. 

Salient features of the solar system are as follows: 



Lot 36 



Lot 73 



Lot 77 



o 


Collector Type - 


Air 


Liquid 


Air 


o 


Manufacturer - 


Daystar 


Daystar 


Solaron 


o 


Freeze Protection - 


None 


Yes 


None 


o 


Application - 


Preheat DHW 

and House 

Heating 


Preheat DHW 


Preheat DHW 


o 


Storage - 


750 Gal 


80 Gal 


120 Gal 


o 


New or Retrofit - 


New 


New 


New 


o 


Site-Specific 


Oil fired 


Gas fired 


Gas fired 




Features - 


furnace and 
Electric DHW 


DHW 


DHW 



The Lot numbers 36 and 73 system was designed by Daystar of Burlington, 
Massachusetts. Lot 77 by Solaron of Colorado. 

The Saddle Hill Trust solar energy systems are installed in three single family 
dwellings (Lots 36, 73, and 77). Each of the dwellings are four bedroom, two story 
frame structures. Lot 36 has 1944 square feet, lots 73 and 77 have 1696 square 
feet. 



All these dwellings are fully instrumented for performance monitoring and eval- 
uation. The three systems are designed to preheat domestic water. Lot 36, in 
addition to preheat domestic water includes solar energy for house heating. 



The data in this report is for lot 36, since this system is more complex and provides 
building heating. In this system, water is the heat transfer fluid. Solar energy is 
collected by two banks of flat plate collectors with a gross area of 315 square feet. 
Solar energy storage is provided by circulating water through the solar collectors 
and a heat exchanger in a 750 gallon basement equipment room storage tank. 

Space heating demands are met by circulating water from storage through a 
heating coil in the air distribution system in the house heating system. 

Auxiliary space heating is provided by an oil-fired warm air furnace. 

Solar energy for pre-heating domestic hot water is provided by circulating water 
from the solar storage tank through a heat exchanger in an electric domestic hot 
water heater. 

The performance of the Saddle Hill Trust Solar Energy System has been monitored 
since December 1978. 

Original cost estimates for provisioning and installation of the solar system are in 
Section VI of this report. However the final cost of its instrumentation are not 
included in this report. 



SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION 



(No information available at this time) 



Figure lll-l. Site Plan 



Site Description (See Figure III- I) 
o Topography - Flat 

o Latitude - 42° 
o Longitude - 71° 

o Elevation - 200 Feet 
o Annual degree days 

o Heating - 5643 

o Data location - Boston, Massachusetts 

o Data reference - Local Climatological Data Annual 

Summaries , Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic 
and Atmlospheric Administration 

o Average horizontal insolation 

o January - 555 Btu/ff2/ c | cl y 

o July - 1881 Btu/Ft 2 /day 

o Data location - Blue Hill, Massachusetts 

o Data reference - ASHRAE System Handbook 
o Shading 

o Heating season - None 

o Cooling season - None 
Building Description 
o Occupancy 

o Type of dwelling - Single family 

o Family of six 

o Four bedroom, family/living/dining, kitchen, solar equipment 

room, 2 bathrooms, attached garage 

o Total area - Approximately 1944 square feet 

o Solar conditioned area - 1913 square feet 



o Height - Two story (33 ft. above grade) 
o Roof slope at collector - 42° pitch 
o Special features - Ventilated attic 
Mechanical System 
o Heating 

o Solar - 

o Auxiliary - Oil fired furnace for space heating. 

o Cooling (Non-Solar) Absorption 

o Auxiliary - 

o Distribution - 

Domestic Hot Water 

o Daily water demand - 120 gallons per day 

o Solar - Heat exchanger located in solar storage tank 

o Auxiliary - Electric element 



IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 



A. General Overview 



This residential solar demonstration project (Saddle Hill Grant H-2594) located at 
Medway, Massachusetts is a liquid system utilized for heating, space and domestic 
hot water. Auxiliary units are provided for heating, cooling and domestic water. 

Subsequent sections describe the collector, storage, energy-to-load, and auxiliary 
subsystem. Specific details of the operating modes and controls are described in 
the final section. Figure IV-A-I is a system schematic diagram. 



COU_ICIO* 

ca-i 




\ 

■ i--01 



U COLLECTOR <J* STORAGE ^ L , LOAD ^ j 
!*" SUBSYSTEM *T» SUBSYSTEM *T SUBSYSTEM^ 



Figure IV-A- I . General Overview 



Subsequent sections describe the collector, storage, energy-to-load, and auxiliary 
subsystems. Specific details of the operating modes and system controls are 
described in the final section. Appendices A and B present a glossary ana a legend 
of symbols. 

Solar System and Component Summary 

o Number of Collector types - One 

o Number of circulation loops - Three 

o Liquid - Three 

o Air - One 



B. Collector Subsystem (See Figure IV-B-I) 



COLLI CT O* 
CCLM 




U COLLECTOR 
r SUBSYSTEM 






P, 



Figure IV-B-I. Collector Subsystem 



Collector array system consists of 14 single glazed selective surface, flat plate 
collector panels. Anti-freeze fluid is circulated through the collectors to the solar 
storage tank. 



Collector (COL- 1) (See Figure IV-B-2) 

o Manufacturer - Daystar 

o Model name/number - 2001 

o Type - Liquid flat plate, tube and plate 

o Location - Roof 

o Orientation - Fixed 0° E of S 

o Tilt angle - 58° from horizontal 

o Number of collector panels - 14 

o Array configuration - Two rows of seven panels 

o Collector 

2 
o Total gross area of array - 315 Ft 

2 

o Net aperture area - 293 Ft 

2 

o Net absorber area - 286 Ft 

o Weight per panel, empty - 134 lb 

o Weight per panel, full - 140 lb 

o Weight of filled array and support structure - 

o Panel length - 72.8 inches 

o Panel width - 44.5 inches 

o Frame depth - 5.5 inches 

o Standoff height - 22 inches 

o Glazing (cover plate) 

o Number of cover plates - Two 
o Cover plate No. I - Outer 

o Manufacturer - ASG Industries 

o Product Name/Number - ASG Low Iron Glass 

o Material - Glass, low iron tempered 

o Thickness - . I 87 inches 

o Coating - None 

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o Optical properties (solar region) (infrared region) 

Transmittance 88% 83% 

Reflectance 0.9% 0.5% 

Emittance - 9.3% 

o Edge or surface treatment, other than coating - Mechanical ground 

o Coating on cover plate material - None 
Cover plate No. 2 - Inner 
o Manufacturer - Daystar 

o Product Name/Number - Heat trap 

o Material - Polycarobonate sheet 
o Thickness - .008 
o Optical properties (solar region) (infrared region) 

Transmittance 94% 1% 

Reflectance 1% 

o Edge treatment - Accordian folded with ss clamp to reinforce pleats 

o Coating - None 
Absorber 

o Manufacturer - Daystar 
o Material - Copper CDA I 10 
o Substrate material dimension 

Thickness - 0.020 inches 

Length - 70 inches 

Width - 42 inches 
Coating 

o Manufacturer - 3M 
o Model Name/Number - Black nextel, Series 40 1 -CIO 



12 



o Application method - Painted 

a Material - Epoxy 

Absorptance Properties Solar Region Infrared 

o Absorptance - 97% 95% 

o Reflectance- 30% 3% 

o Emittance - 97% 

Heat transfer fluid passages 

o Location - Beneath absorber 

o Pattern - Serpentine 

o Materials - Copper, CDA 122 

o Wall thickness - 0.28 inches 

o Internal diameter - 0.569 inches 

o Fluid passage spacing - 6.0 inches on center 

o Maximum operating conditions 

Temperature - 300 F 

Pressure - 320 psi 
o Fluid passage bond to substrate - Solder (60% Sn, 40% Pb) 
o Protective coating inside fluid passage - None 
Insulation 
o Layer one - sides 

Manufacturer - Celotex 

Product Name/Number - CPR 496 

Material - Isocyanurate 

Thermal resistance - R-8 



13 



o Layer two - Sides 

Manufacturer - Celotex 

Product Name/Number - CPR 496 

Material Isocyanurate 

Thermal Resistance - R-8 
o Layer one - back 

Manufacturer - Celotex 

Product Name/Number - CPR 496 

Material - Isocyanurate 

Thermal resistance - R-15 
Gaskets and sealants 
o Manufacturer - General Electric 

o Product Name/Number - Construction, 1200 

o Material - Silicone 

Frame 

o Manufacturer - Daystar 

o Product Name/Number - Case 

o Material 

Aluminum 3003 - H 14 

o Protective coating - Painted 

o Number of structure attach points per module to 

building - 4 

o Desiccant - None 

o Freeze protection - Anit-Freeze 

o Overheating protection - Heat exchanger 

o Standoffs used - Yes 



14 



Collector performance 

o Method of evaluation - ASHRAE (t.-t )/l converted from NBS 

y intercept - F R (ta) = 69° F Ft 2 hr/Btu 

Slope - F R U L = 70 

Point Number 12 3 4 



o n = Collector thermal efficiency (%) - 69.3 60.6 51.6 41.3 

o t. = collector inlet temperature (°F) - 91 134 180 216 

o t = ambient air temperature (°F) - 94 94 94 88 

a 

2 

o I = insolation intensity Btu/hr ft - 302 327 330 323 

o ASHRAE (t.-t )/l - 0.01 0.12 0.26 0.40 

o Test flow rate - 241.7 

o Total heat loss Coefficient U L = 0.76 Btu/hr Ft 2 °F 

o Test wind speed - 6.19 mph 

2 
o Back side thermal loss -0.13 Btu/hr ft 

2 
o Edge thermal loss - 0.04 Btu/hr ft 

o Thermal response time constant - 3 minutes 

o Fluid specific heat - 1.00 Btu/lb° F 

o Test fluid medium - 100% water 

o Test collector area 

Gross - 22.6 ft 

Net - 20.9 ft 2 



15 



Liquid Circulation Loop No. I (COL- I to TSU- I ) 

o Design maximum operating temperature - 200 F 

o Pressure - 40 psi 

o Heating design liquid flow - 7 gpm 

o Cooling design liquid flow - None 

o Provision for expansion - Expansion tank 

o Anticipated liauid temperature - 200 F 







-, V 



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COLLECTOR 
SUBSYSTEM 






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P. 



\ iaure IV-B-3. Coi!e< for-To-' ' " • 



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o Heat transfer medium - 40% water and 60% glycerine 

o Specific heat - .77 Btu/lb/ F 

o Density - .45 lb/ft 3 

o Heat capacity - 34.7 But/ft 3 /°F at 70° F 

o Viscosity over working temperature range - 1.5 to 4.5 poises/ 1 00 

o Boiling point - 220 F 

o Freezing point - 31 F 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - 257 F 

o Toxicity - Non-potable 

o pH factor - 6.0 

o Chemical feeder to maintain pH factor - None 

o Inhibitor - None 

o Piping 

o Rigid - Copper Type L 

o Piping insulation - Polyurethane foam 

o Location - Basement to roof 

o Filters - None 

o Circulator pump (P- I ) 

o Manufacturer - Grundfos 

o Model Name/Number - UPF-20-42 

o Type - Centrifugal 

o Maximum operating conditions 

Dynamic pressure - 
Temperature - 220 F 

o Material exposed to hect transfer fluid - Stainless steel 

o Motor size - 0.05 hp, I 15V, I phase, 60 Hz 



17 



o Maximum motor speed - 

o Drive - 

o Speed - 

o Pump speed - 

o Circulating volume - Low head mode - 14 gpm 

o Circulating volume - High head mode - gpm 

o Operating head (dynamic) - Low head mode - gpm 

o Operating heat (dynamic) - High head mode - k.k psi 

o Motor operation - 

Heat Exchanger (HX-I) 

o Manufacturer - Daystar 

o Model Name/Number - Mod 10 

o Type of flow - Convection one side 

o Design 

Tube inside tank with fins 

Number of separations - Single 
o Thermal insulation R value - None 

o Convection 

Side one - Forced 

Side two - Natural 
o Located 

Side one - TSU 

Side two - TSU 
o Circulation Loop (s) - I, 2, and 3 

o Maximum manufactureres rated 

Temperature - Side one 300 F: Side two 300 F 

Pressure - Inside 200 psi; Outside 200 psi 



i8 



Inside^ Outsid* 



o Heat transfer/surface area - 10.9 ft 55.2 ft 

o Design heating capacity - 49480 Btu/hr 

o Effectiveness - 85% 

o Design flow rate - 7 gpm 

Related pump - PI 
o Liquid temperatures Side One Side Two 

Entering 1 50.0° F 100.0° F 

Leaving 1 30.0° F 100.0° F 

o Heating Coefficient - 2474 

o Material - Copper 

Heat exchanger (HX 4) 
o Manufacturer - Daystar 

o Model Name/Number - #20 Heat pump panel 

o Type - Natura convection one side 

o Convection 

Air side - Natural 

Liquid side - Forced 
Distribution Valve (V-l) 
o Manufacturer - Treice 

o Model Name/Number - 9200 
o Function - Flow adjusting 

o Operation - Automatic - motorized 

o Type - Temperature controlled 

o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid - 



19 



o Distribution Valve (V-3) 

o Manufacturer - 

o Model Name/Number - 

o Function - On/Off 

o Operation - Manual 

o Type - 

o Materials exposed to heat transfer fluid - 

Control Mode Selector (CMS- 1) 

o Manufacturer - Rho Sigma 

o Model Name/number - Differential thermostrat 106 

o Modes controlled 

o Collector to storage 

ON-(SN-OI) (SN-02) + 40 

OFF-(SN-OI) (SN-02) + 20 

Control Mode Selector (CMS-5) 

o Modes controlled - Emergency energy dump 

o Storage to space - (SN-03) 8.5 

ON - Greater than 1 50° F (SN-0 1 2), 
Electric power off, PI -ON 

Off - Power on 

o Fail Safe Control (FC-I) 

o Manufacturer - 

o Product Name/Number - 

o Type - Backflow preventor 

o Flow Control (FC-5) 

o Manufacturer - 

o Type - Flow control 



20 



C. Storage Subsystem (See Figure IV-C-I) 




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STORAGE 



SUBSYSTEM 






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Figure IV-C-I. Storage Subsystem 



Solar energy storage is provided by a 750 gallon storage tank located in the 
basement. This tank is made of steel with a galvanized interior. It measures 5 
feet in diameter, 9 feet in height and is insulated with foil backed fiberglass 
sheeting. A heat exchanger is installed in the tank for heat transfer from solar 
heated water to the energy storage tank. 



21 



Thermal Storage Unit (TSU-I) 
o Container 



3 
o Total storage volume - I 13 ft (750 gallons) 

Length - 9.0 ft 

Diameter - 5.0 ft 
Storage medium 

o Heating design temperature - 200 F 

o Medium- 100% water 

o Specific heat - 1000 Btu/lb/°F 



o 



Density - 64 lb/ft at 70 F at standard atmospheric pressure 



o Boiling point - 2 I 2 F 

o Freezing point - 32 F 

o Recommended medium temperature - 200 F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH Factor - 7.0 

o Inhibitor - None 

Container construction 

o Type - Steel tank, galvanized interior 

o Location - Basement 

o Auxiliary heaters - Mono 

o Insulation - Polyurethene (R-l I) 

o Exterior finish - Red lead 

o Filters - None 



22 



Liquid Circulation Loop No. 2 (TSU- I to HX-3) 




te 






STORAGE 



SUBSYSTEM 






Hi 



Figure IV-C-2. 5torage-to-Space 



o Design operating temperature - 200 F 

o Pressure - 40 psi 

o Design liquid flow - 5 gpm 



23 



Heat transfer medium 

o Medium - 100% water 

o Specific heat - 1 .00 Btu/lb/° F 

o Density - Gk lb/ft 3 

o Boiling point - 2 I 2 F 

o Freezing point - 32 F 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - 200 F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH factor - 7.0 

o Chemical feeder - None 

o Inhibitor - None 

o Pressurizer - Yes 

o Piping 

o Rigid - Copper, Type L 

o Insulation - Polyurethene foam (R-l I) 

o Location - Basement 

o Exterior finish - PVC 

o Finish and Insulation - Joint type - Tape and mastic 

Heat Exchanger (HX-3) 
o Manufacturer - Singer 

o Model Name/Number - ZG- I Op I -030-084 BM 6 1 I 36 1 I 
o Type of flow - Cross 

o Design - Fin coil 

o Convection - Air side Liguid side 

Forced Forced 



2k 



o Circulation loops - 2 and 4 

o Material - Copper 

o Heat transfer surface - Aluminum 

o Exposed to fluid - Aluminum and copper 

o Design flow quality - Air side 1400 cfm, Liquid side 5 gpm 

o Distribution Valve (V-4) 

o Manufacturer - 

o Model Name/Number - 

o Function - ON/OFF 

o Operation - Manual 

o Type - 

o Materials exposed to heat transfer fluid - 

Control Mode Selector (CMS-3) 
o Manufacturer 

Model Name/Number - Dual thermostat 
o Modes controlled 

o Storage to space 

ON - (SN-06) 70° F 

OFF - (SN-03) 85° F or (SN-06) 70° F 

o Storage to auxiliary 

ON - (SN-06) 68° F 
OFF - (SN-06) 68° F 

o Type - Temperature resistance thermometer 

o Flow Control (FC-01) - Backflow preventor 

o Flow Control (F C-02) - Pressure relief valve 

o Flow Control (FC-03) - Pressure/Temperature Control relief valve 



25 



D. Energy To Load Subsystem (See Figure IV-D-I) 




ft 



_£w2_ 






LOAD 



SUBSYSTEM 



Figure IV-D-I. Energy-to-Load Subsystem 



Solar energy stored in the 750 gallon storage tank is used to meet the space heating 
demands by solar heater water circulating it through heating coils in the air 
distribution system. Auxiliary space heating, supplementing this source, is 
provided by an oil fired forced air furnace. 



26 



Liquid Circulation Loop No. 3 (TSU-I to DHW-I) 

o Design maximum operating temperature - 200 F 
o Heating design liquid flow - 7 gpm 

o Heat transfer medium 

o Medium- 100% water 

o Specific heat - 1 .00 Btu/lb/° F 

o Density - 64 lb/ft 3 

o Boiling point - 212 F 

o Freezing point - 32 F 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - 200 F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH factor - 7.0 

o Chemical feeder - None 

o Inhibitor - None 

o Circulator pump (P-2) 

o Manufacturer - Taco 

o Model Name/Number - Circulator /007 

o Type - Centrifugal 

o Maximum operating conditions 

Dynamic pressure - 30 psi 
Temperature - 200 F 

o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid - Cast iron 

o Motor size - 0.04 hp, I I 5 v, I phase, 60 Hz 

o Maximum motor speed - 3450 rpm 

o Drive - Yes 

o Speed - Single 

o Pump Speed - 3450 



27 



o Circulating volume - Low head mode - 23 gpm 

o Operating head (dynamic) - Low Head Mode - 4.4 psi 

o Motor operation - 0.05 bhp 

o Heat Exchanger (HX-2) 

o Manufacturer - Vaughn 

o Model Name/Number - C80 SNR- I 5 

o Type of exchanger - Liguid to liguid 

o Type of flow - Convection 

o Heat exchanger design - Tube inside tank with fins 

o Number of separations - Single 

o Convection 

Side one - Forced 

Side two - Natural 

2 
o External exposed surface area - 8.7 ft 

o Design flow rate - 23 gpm 

o Material - Copper 

o Piping 

o Rigid - Copper, type L 

o Insulation - Polyurethene' 

o Location - Basement 

Control Mode Selector (CMS-2) 
o Modes controlled 

o Storage to hot water - ON - (SN-04) (SN-003 + 5° F Differential 

o Storage to space - OFF - (SN-04) (SN-03) + 5° F Differential 

o Sensors - (SN-03) and (SN-04) 

o Type - Thermister 



28 



Air Circulation Loop No. 4 (HX-3 to Space Heating) 
o Location - Below grade in basement 

o Ducting - Steel, Galvanized 

o Joint Type - Pressure sensitive tape, clamped 

o Internal insualtion - None 

o Design air flow - 1400 cfm 

o Heat Exchanger (HX-3) - Described in Loop 2 

o Distribution - Blower (BL-01) 

o Type - Squirrel; cage fan 

Control Mode Selector (CMS- 3) 
o Modes controlled 

o Storage to space - ON - (SN-06) 70° F 

o Storage to space - OFF - (SN-03) 85° F 
o Sensors (SN-5) and (SN-6) 

o Type - Thermostat 



29 



E. Auxiliary Subsystems (See Figure IV-E-I) 




$ 









LOAD 



SUBSYSTEM 



Figure IV-E-I. Auxiliary-to-Load Subsystem 



The auxiliary subsystems, oil fired furnace and domestic hot water tank, mentioned 
in the foregoing Energy to Load Subsystem have been grouped in this section for 
descriptive purposes, their function and purpose have been previously described. 



30 



Auxiliary Loads (DHW) 

o Domestic Water Heater (DWH- I) 

o Manufacturer - Vaughn 

o Model - C8NR 

o Energy source - Electrical (I 15 V, single phase, 60 Hz) 

o Tank size - 80 gal 

o Energy input - 14676 Btu/hr 

o Energy output - 14676 Btu/hr 

o Heating stages - Single 

o Maximum recovery rate -18.5 gal/hr 

o Yearly average inlet temperature - 60 F 

o Design output temperature - 140 F 

o Thermal resistance - R-7 

o Furnace (Furn - I ) 

o Manufacturer - Friedrich 

o Model Name/Number - QUA- I 12-AMA 

o Energy source - Oil fired (Oil No. 2) 

o Energy input - 140,000 Btu/hr 

o Energy output - I I 2000 Btu/hr 

o Control Mode Selector (CMS-4) 

o Modes controlled - Auxiliary hot water 

o Sensor (SN-05) 

o Type - Thermostat 



31 



F. Modes of Operation (See Figure IV-F-I) 




U COLLECTOR 
r SUBSYSTEM 



STORAGE 



SUBSYSTEM 



LOAD 



SUBSYSTEM 



P. 



Figure IV-F- 1. Controls Diagram 



The Saddle Hill Trust solar system is shown on Figure IV-F-I. The system consists 
of the following four subsystems: a) Collector subsystem, b) storage subsystem, 
c) load (space heating) subsystem and d) auxiliary loads subsystem. A heat 
rejection subsystem is incorporated in the collector subsystem to provide for heat 
rejection preventing overheat conditions. The auxiliary subsystem consists of an 
oil fired furnace for space heating and an electric domestic water heater. 



32 



Operation of the solar system and the auxiliary subsystems may involve one or 
more of the modes of operations described below. 

Mode I - Collector-to-Storage: 

When the collector temperature control sensor, located in the collector outlet 
manifold, indicates a temperature k F greater than the storage temperature 
control sensor, located at the bottom of the storage tank, collector pump (P-l) is 
activated and will circulate water through the storage tank and the collectors. 
Collector pump (P-l) continues to run until the collector temperature becomes less 
than 2 F greater than the storage temperature. 

Mode 2 Space Heating-from-Storage: 

Solar energy from storage is used for space heating when there is a demand from 
the space heating thermostat and there is sufficient thermal energy in storage, as 
indicated by the storage tank top temperature, not being less than 70 F. In this 
mode space heating circulating pump and the fan in the air distribution system are 
activated. Valve V- I is positioned to allow flow from the storage tank through the 
heating coils of the heat exchanger and back to the storage tank. The oil fired 
furnace does not operate in this mode. 

Mode 3 - Auxiliary-Space Heating: 

The auxiliary heating mode is used when there is a demand for space heating from 
the space thermostat and there is not sufficient thermal energy in storage to meet 
the demand, in this mode the oil fired furnace is activated. 

Mode k - Domestic Hot Water Heating: 

Energy from solar storage is used to heat domestic hot water when the tem- 
perature differential between the storage tank top and DHW tank top is greater 
than 5 F is met, pump P-2 is activated, circulating water from the DHW heater 
through a heat exchanger located in the DHW- 1 tank. Auxiliary electric DHW 
heating occurs if the temperature of the hot water in the tank drops below 120 F. 



33 



Mode 5 - Excess Heat Rejection 

Whenever the collector liquid heat transfer media exceeds 150 F, the energy 
dumping mode will be initiated. In this mode, valve V- I is positioned to allow flow 
through the heat rejection heat exchanger and pump P- I is activated to remove the 
heat. 



34 



V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION 

A. The National Solar Data Network 

The National Solar Data Network (see figure V-A-l) has been developed for the 
Department of Energy to process data collected from specific residential demon- 
stration sites which were selected for thermal performance evaluation. The data 
flow in the Network includes monthly and seasonal system performance reports 
describing the thermal performance of the solar energy system and subsystems. 

The performance evaluation instrumentation at each selected demonstration site is 
part of a comprehensive data collection system that allows for valid analyses of 
the solar system performance. Collected data are both applicable and practical in 
calculating thermal performance factors that describe the behavior of the solar 
system (see NBSIR 76-1 137), National Bureau of Standards. Additional instrumen- 
tation may also be included as a result of site-specific reguirements. Typically, 
the instrumentation includes sensors that monitor the following: 

o Total insolation in the plane of the collector array 

o Ambient temperature 

o Collector subsystem flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage inlet flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage outlet flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage temperature 

o Storage-to-load subsystem flow rate and temperatures 

o Auxiliary fuel flow rates 

Site data are recorded sutomatically at prescribed intervals by the Site Data 
Acguisition System (SDAS). The recorded data are transmitted daily to the 
Communications Processor in the Central Data Processing System (CDPS). The 
communications link between every SDAS and the CDPS consists of voice-grade 
telephone lines and telephone data couplers. A reading is transmitted from the 
SDAS internal timer with every data sample to ensure that the data are time- 
tagged correctly. 



35 




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36 







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37 



The Communications Processor scans the receiving data to identify any apparent 
transmission errors and verifies correct site contact by checking the address code 
transmitted by the 5DAS. Data is stored temporarily in the Communications 
Processor end processed by the Host Computer. The processing includes measure- 
ment checking to ensure that the data are reasonable; that is, that they are not 
beyond the known instrument limits u o + they are not erratic. Data which 

appear questionable are discarded ana ore not used in the solar system preformance 
analyses. 

Appropriate equations were formulated and programmed to define desired perform- 
ance factors for tne solar energy systems at each selected demonstration site. A 
performance factor is a number that describes either the efficiency or the quantity 
of energy lost, gained, or converted by a solar energy system or by a component. 
All vaid data are processed using these performance factor equations to generate 
hourly performance factors. Hourly performance factors are integratea into daily 
and monthly performance factors. These hourly, daily, and monthly performance 
factors are stored in data files in the CDPS. These data files also include 
measurement data, expressed in engineering units; numerical and textual site 
identification: and specific site data used in generating the performance factors. 

B. On-Site Instrumentation 

The on-site instrumentation includes sensors to monitor the various parameters of 
the solar energy system, a junction box, and a Site Data Acquisition System that 
stores and transmits data to the Host Computer (see figure V-A- 1 and V-A-2). 
Specific information for temperature, flow, power and miscellaneous sensors are 
presented in tabular form. Sensor locations are shown in figure V-B- I . 



38 



SENSOR 



DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENT 



MODEL NO. 



1001 Insolation, total 

TOO I Temperature, outside ambient 

TI00 Temperature, collector, Low 

TI50 Temperature, collector, High 

WI00 Flow, collector 

EP 1 00 Power ,co! lector pumps (P- 1 ) 

TIOI Temperature, heat exch. input 

TI5I Temperature, heat exch. output 

T200 Temperature, storage tank, upper 

T20I Temperature, storage tank, middle 

T202 Temperature, storage tank, bottom 

T300 Temperature, return from HX (in DHW tank) 

T350 Temperature, supply to HX (in DHW tank) 

T30I Temperature, DHW return 

T35I Temperature, DHW supply 

W300 Flow, HW heat exch. 

EP300 Power, preheat loop pump and controls 

T302 Temperature, CW supply 

T352 Temperature, HW tank, High 

W30I Flow, Total, CW supply 

EP30I Power, DHW electric heater 

T400 Temperature, tank return from heat coil 

T450 Temperature, tank to heat coil 

W400 Flow, tank to heat coil 

EP400 Power, pump (P-3) 

T40I Temperature, return from heat coil 

T45I Temperature, heating coil, high 

W40I Flow, return air to domestic furnace 

T402 Temperature, return air to domestic furnace 

T452 Temperature, upstream of heat coil 

T453 Temperature, heated air supply 

F400 Fuel consumption, 120 MBtu/hr furnace 

EP40I Power, blower, domestic furnace 

T600 Temperature, return air from heat space 



Eppley PSP 

S53P-60 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

MKV-I" I - 1 

PC5-I 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

S53P-I22 

S53P-266 

S53P-426 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

MKV-3/4,1.5-15 

PC5-I 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

Hersey 430 

PC5-29 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

MKV-3/4,1-10 

PC5-I 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

KURZ 430DC 

S57P-I00 

S57P-I00 

S53P-I00 

Magnecraft 

W88ACPX-4 

PC5-I0 

S53P-60 



39 




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en 



40 



VI. COST DATA 

A. General 

The following cost data depicts only solar energy portion of the construction costs. 
Costs of instrumentation is not included since it is not part of the construction 
effort. 

B. Construction Grant Funds 

Solar Subsystem Applicants Request Construction Gran t 

Lot 36 Lot 73 Lot 77 

Collectors $10,030 $1,260 $1,443 

Energy Storage 1,190 140 156 

Distribution 

and Controls 4,760 1,64b 1,7 16 

Installation Included Included Included 

Other* 1,020 455 585 



Total $17,000 $3,500 $3,900 $24,400 

C. Construction Period: October 15, 1 977 through June 16, 1978 

* Consists of promotional and minor v.'ork. 



41 



VII. APPENDIX 

A. Glossary 

ABSORBER PLATE - The surface in a flat plate collector that absorbs incident 
solar radiation and transfers the absorbed energy to a heat transfer fluid. 
ABSORPTANCE - The ratio of absorbed radiation by a surface to the total incident 
radiation on that surface. 

ABSORPTION SUBSYSTEM - The mechanical equipment that conditions indoor air 
by an absorption process. 

ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEM - An integrated solar energy system, consisting of 
collector, storage, solar energy-to-load subsystems, that can condition indoor air or 
preheat domestic hot water in a controlled manner. 

AIR-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM - A solar energy system in which air is 
the heat transfer fluid. 

AIR CONDITIONING - The process of treating indoor air by controlling the 
temperature, humidity, and distribution to specified comfort settings as set by the 
occupants in the conditioned space. 

AMBIENT AIR - A term for outdoor air, and may be brought into a building to be 
conditioned or circulated. 

ANTI-FREEZE FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM - A freeze protection system that 
uses additives or solutions to the heat transfer medium, which depresses its 
freezing point sufficiently to prevent possible water freeze in the solar collectors 
and the exterior piping. 

AUXILIARY ENERGY SUBSYSTEM - The equipment, utilizing conventional eneray 
sources, used to supplement the output provided by a solar energy system and used 
to provide a full backup system when the solar system is inoperable. 
BACKFLOW - The reversal of flow in a distribution system. 
BACKFLOW PREVENTOR - A device or means to stop backflow. 
BEAM RADIATION - Solar radiation which is not scattered and may be con- 
centrated. 

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) - A unit of energy that is required to heat one 
pound of water from 59 F to 60 F. 

BUILDING ENVELOPE - The exterior surface of a building that encloses the 
condi t ioned space. 



42 



CLIMATE - The prevailing or average weather conditions of a specific geographic 

region as described by temperature and other meteorological data. 

COLLECTOR MANIFOLD - The piping that connects the absorber tubes in a 

collector plate. 

COLLECTOR PLATE - A term used for an absorber plate. 

COLLECTOR SUBSYSTEM - The assembly that absorbes solar radiation and 

transfers the absorbed thermal energy to a heat transfer fluid. 

COMBINED COLLECTORS - An assembly that both collects solar radiation and 

stores the thermal energy in the same unit. 

CONCENTRATING SOLAR COLLECTOR - A solar collector which focuses beam 

radiation onto an absorber in order to obtain higher energy fluxes than can 

normally be achieved by flat plate solar collectors. 

CONCENTRATOR - A reflective surface or refracting lens used in directing 

insolation onto an absorber. 

CONDITIONED SPACE - The space in a building where the air is conditioned by 

heating or cooling. 

CONTROL SUBSYSTEM - The assembly of electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic 

actuated sensing devices used in regulating the solar energy system and the 

auxiliary energy subsystems. 

COOLING TOWER - A heat exchanger that transfers waste heat from an 

absorption cooling system to ambient air. 

DIFFUSE RADIATION - Solar radiation which is scattered by air molecules, dust, 

or other substances suspended in the air. 

DRAIN-DOWN FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM - A freeze protection system that 

prevents potential water freeze-up within the collector and exterior pioinq by 

automatically draining and replacing the water with a non-freezing medium such as 

air, nitrogen, etc. 

DUCT HEATING COIL - A liguid-to-air heat exchanger in the duct distribution 

system used to heat air by passing a hot fluid through a coil in the air system. 

EQUIVALENT FULL LOAD COOLING HOURS - The seasonal cooling load for a 

building Oescribed as the total number of hours that the air conditioning system 

will operate under full load conditions to meet the required cooling load. 

I MITTANCE - The ratio of energy radiatea by a body to the energy radiated by a 

black body at the same temperature. 

F XPANSION TANK - A tank which will permit water to expand whenever it is 

heated to prevent excessive pressures on the other system components. 



43 



FIXED COLLECTOR - A solar collector that is permanently oriented towards the 

sun and cannot track the sun nor be adjusted for seasonal variations. 

FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR - A basic heat collection device used in solar heating 

systems, which consists of an absorber plate, with insulated bottom and sides, and 

covered by one or more transparent covers. There are no concentrators or focusing 

aids in a flat plate collector. 

FOCUSING COLLECTOR - A solar collector using a parabolic mirror, fresnel lens, 

or other type of focusing device to concentrate solar radiation onto an absorber. 

FRESNEL COLLECTOR - A concentrating solar collector which uses a fresnel lens 

to focus beam radiation onto an absorber. 

GLAZING - The transparent cover(s) on a solar collector used to reduce the energy 

losses from the top of the collector. 

HEAT TRANSFER FLUID - The fluid that transfers solar energy from the solar 

collector to the storage subsystem or to the load. 

INCIDENCE ANGLE - The angle in which the insolation strikes a surface and the 

normal for that surface. 

INSOLATION - The total amount of solar radiation on a surface in a given unit of 

time. 

LAMINATED GLASS - A glazing consisting of multiple glass sheets bonded 

together by intervening layer or layers of plastic. 

LANGLEY - The standard unit of insolation defined as I langley = I cal/cm^, (| 

Langley = 3.69 Btu/ft 2 ). 

LIQUID-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM - A solar energy system in which 

either water or an antifreeze solution is the heat transfer fluid. 

LOAD - The total space conditioning or domestic water heating requirements that 

are supplied by both the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem. 

NOCTURNAL RADIATION - The loss of thermal energy by the solar collectors to 

the sky at night. 

NO-FLOW CONDITION - The condition obtained when the heat transfer fluid is not 

flowing through the collector array due to a shutdown or a malfunction. 

OPAQUE - A surface that is not transparent, thus solar radiation is either 

reflected or absorbed. 

OUTGASSING - The emission of gases by materials and components, usually during 

exposure to elevated temperature, or reduced pressure. 



44 



PACKAGE AIR-CONDITIONING UNIT - A factory-made assembly consisting of an 
indoor coil, a compressor, an outdoor coil, and other components needed for space 
cooling operations. This unit may also include additional components to heat the 
condition space. 

PARABOLIC FOCUSING COLLECTOR - A concentrating collector which focuses 
beam radiation by a parabolic reflector. 

PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM - An integrated solar energy system that can provide for 
space heating needs without the use of any other energy source other than the sun. 
REFLECTANCE - The ratio of radiation reflected by a surface to the total 
incident radiation on the surface. 

REFLECTED RADIATION - Insolation which is reflected from a surface, such as 
the ground, and is incident on the solar collector. 

ROCK BED - A storage tank using uniform-sized rocks to store solar energy in air- 
based solar collector systems. 

SELECTIVE SURFACE - A surface which has a high absorptance for solar radiation 
and a low emittance for thermal radiation. 

SOLAR CONDITIONED SPACE - The area in a building that depends on solar 
energy to provide for a fraction of the heating and cooling needs. 
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM - An integrated assembly of collector, storage, solar 
energy-to-load, and control subsystems reguired to convert solar energy into 
thermal energy for space heating reguirements, as well as the addition of an 
auxiliary backup system. 

SOLAR RETROFIT - The addition of a solar energy system to an existing structure. 
STORAGE SUBSYSTEM - The components used to store solar energy so that the 
stored energy can be used for heating, cooling, or heating water during periods of 
low insolation. 

STRATIFICATION - The horizontal layering in a medium due to temperature 
differentials, commonly noticed in storage tanks filled with water. 
THERMOSTAT - A temperature sensing device which controls the heating and 
cooling systems for space conditioning or the hot water heater. 

TILT ANGLE FROM HORIZONTAL - Angle between the horizontal plane and the 
plane of collector. 

TON OF REFRIGERATION - A unit of refrigeration which is eguivalent to 12,000 
Btu/hr. 

TRACKING COLLECTOR - A set of solar energy tracking collectors that auto- 
matically move in order to constantly aim towards the sun. 



45 



VAPOR BARRIER - A material which is used to reduce the transmission of water 

vapor. 

ZONE - A portion of a conditioned space which use a common control because of 

their similar heating and cooling requirements. 



46 



B. 



Legend For Solar System Schematics 



VALVES 



PIPING SPECIALITIES 



-M- 



^> 



-5- 



T*^ 



&— 



-c*j 



* 



-►«- 



GATE VALVE 
CHECK VALVE 
BALANCING VALVE 

GLOBE VALVE 
BALL VALVE 
PLUG VALVE 
BACKFLOW PREVENTER 
VACUUM BREAKER 
RELIEF OR SAFETY 
PRESSURE REDUCING 

ANGLE GATE VALVE 

ANGLE GLOVE VALVE 
CONTROL VALVE, 2 WAY 

CONTROL VALVE. 3 WAY 
BUTTERFLY VALVE 



+- 



4 WAY VALVE 
TTINGS 



-If 



HJ- 



-Q- 



-O 



-®- 



DIRECTIONOF FLOW 

CAP 

REDUCER, CONCENTRIC 

REDUCER, ECCENTRIC 

TEE 

UNION 

FLANGED CONNECTION 

CONNECTION, BOTTOM 
CONNECTION, TOP 
ELBOW, TURNED UP 

ELBOW, TURNED DOWN 
TEE, OUTLET UP 

TEE, OUTLET DOWN 




— S22— 

— Af— 

g fs 

9 PS 



+v 



5= 



i 



v- 



cw>- 




AS 

EXPTK 
WS 
HED 



AUTOMATIC AIR VENT 
MANUAL AIR VENT 
ALIGNMENT GUIDE 

ANCHOR 
BALL JOINT 

EXPANSION JOINT 
EXPANSION LOOP 
FLEXIBLE CONNECTION 

FLOWMETER FITTING 
FLOW SWITCH 

PRESSURE SWITCH 
PRESSURE GAUGE 
PUMP 

PIPE SLOPE 

STRAINER 

STRAINER, W/BLOW OFF 

TRAP 

CONTROL SENSOR 

INSTRUMENTATION SENSOR 

THERMOMETER 
THERMOMETER WELL ONLY 

COLD WATER SUPPLY 

BLOWER 

AIR SEPARATOR 

EXPANSION TANK 

WATER SOFTENER 

HOSE END DRAIN 



47 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



3 1262 09052 6210